| The appearance of the guitar in Russia from about the middle of the XVIII century. In the first paper on the history of music in Russia, published in 1770, its author, "Professor elokventsii and poetry" of the Academy of Sciences in St. Petersburg, Yakov Staehelin, talking about music during the reign of Empress Elizabeth, said: "In conclusion, the news about music and things the Empress Elizabeth should mention that the Italian guitar and her countrywoman - mandolin through various Italians appeared in Moscow, but never had much success - the more that they can not fulfill their purpose, ie to accompany lovers sighs under the windows lovers - in a country where no evening serenade, nor sighing on the streets are not accepted» (§ 52).
Explanation of reasons for the low popularity Staehelin guitar can hardly be called wealthy. Guitar in the first half of the XVIII century there was a great success in Europe, even though it was well known there. Obstacles its spread in Russia, which is so flimsy referred Staehelin, did not prevent her soon to become one of the most popular musical instruments.
More significantly Staehelin indication that originally appeared in Russia imported, "Italian" guitar. In the XVIII century in Russia was coming a lot of Italians. Among them were the major composers, singers, instrumentalists. They were attracted to Russia mainly high, much higher than at home, earn money. Italian musicians performed primarily at the imperial court and in court meetings, playing in the familiar tools already in Russia, and the new, there is still not known.
Along with mandolin and guitar mentioned Staehelin and more common at that time in the West stringed instrument - lute, which, according to him, was playing at the Russian court Belogradskaya Timothy, born in Ukraine, who studied in the 40 - ies of the XVIII century, the art of playing the lute in Dresden.
If on guitar Staehelin said as an instrument, singing only comped, in respect of a lute, he points out that Belogradskaya played it "the strongest solo concerts and difficult" (§ 30).
Lute and guitar - related plucked instruments, whose origin is lost in antiquity. From the East, they were brought to Spain. Dominion of the Moors in Spain, which lasted until 1494, when they fell the last stronghold - the fortress of the Alhambra in Granada, left a deep mark in the art of the Spanish people. And it is reflected in the musical tools. Lute and guitar, consolidate in Spain, due to the close economic and cultural ties with the country of South Italy, penetrated there and soon spread throughout Europe. Of particular importance in the musical culture of European countries XVI-XVII centuries acquired lute.
Resembling the modern mandolin, only bigger, with strongly bent back neck, lute had varieties differ from each other and build the value of the tool, which also changed over time. Became widespread in most European countries in the XVI century lute had six strings, of which 5 were double and one single - string, "songbir" waged melody. Gradually it began to increase 6 strings bass, use open and fixed to the instrument regardless of the neck. Lute was comped singing, solo and ensemble instrument. Musical literature created lutenist XVI-XVII centuries enormous. Apart from a large number of anonymous collections preserved interesting pieces of lute music, compose in different countries major composers (plays JS Bach Bakfark V., J. Cullen, J. Pinel, etc.).
Smaller footprint than the lute, left in musical literature European guitar. Inscribed in Spain and migrated from there to other countries, which is close in form to the modern, it had four double strings. By the second half of the XVI century to 4 strings attached was 5th. In this form, with the formation
tool has been recognized in Europe as a "Spanish" guitar. In the XVI and XVII centuries, this guitar mainly serves the goals of the accompaniment. In Spain, its functions were somewhat widened as Spanish folk songs performed with the accompaniment of a guitar, have been inextricably linked with dancing and almost always had a fairly large instrumental introduction. Guitar in these songs are not limited to the passive voice support, and often becomes the master.
Nevertheless, for the execution of purely instrumental music in Spain often not used guitar and another instrument called the vihuela. It arose as a result of "crossing" guitar with a lute. Closer in form to the guitar, vihuela, as lute, had five double strings and one single, although in the XVI century, attempts were made to add the 7th string. Held out in the musical practice of Spain prior to the XVIII century, inclusive, vihuela left a significant mark in the Spanish musical literature. Vihuela outstanding musicians of the XVI century ( Luis Milan, About Miguel de Fuenllana ) were created fantasy works of dance music and original solo pieces. Literature vihuela as Lute XVI - early XVIII centuries, in all fairness can be seen as a Western "classics" plucked string instrument, the immediate predecessor of the guitar literature.
In Russia, the nearest predecessor of the guitar was Ukrainian bandura. Similar in shape to a lute, pandora, besides the basic 5-6 strings, had "pristrunki" - a few extra strings placed on the deck. Number of strings pandora varied, reaching with "pristrunkami" to 30. Changed and build tool, usually lower than the operation of a lute.
Bandura appeared in Ukraine in the early XVII century and began to oust uniform but less than perfect musical instrument - kobza. This stringed instrument as subsequently pandora, gained special popularity among the Cossacks of Zaporozhye, sang under her historical accompaniment and lyrical songs. Becoming a national folk instrument in Ukraine, pandora in the early XVIII century became widespread in Russia. Fairly detailed account of this Ya Staehelin. He writes: "Pandora is not entirely ignorant in Germany, in their design and sound quite similar to the lute. Occurs she, in fact, from Poland or Ukraine, where is the most Bandurist in Russia. Generally this province compared to other provinces of the Russian state - the same as for other Provence provinces of France. Location of this region in the south, the abundance of wild and garden fruits and consequent contentment and joy inhabitants constitute one of the distinguishing features. All sings, plays and dances in this region. most running tool pandora here, which plays beautifully skilled Ukrainians Polish and Ukrainian dances and accompany its numerous and quite gentle song. since so many young people in Ukraine with great diligence, learn to play this instrument, it is already there for a long time there was a surplus Bandurist constantly. previously, many went out from time to time in Moscow and St. Petersburg, where they were hired in the home of noblemen as pets or Bandurist musicians and where they had to sing and play at the table, in addition to teaching this instrument or that of serfs servants, hunting and showed talent for music. These Ukrainian bandura - most cheerful and agile birds vividly depicting the passion of their songs during facial expressions and gestures, and, in addition, enough fooling around. I knew different Bandurist most excellent, while singing and playing perfectly danced in Ukrainian and who could, without the slightest break in the game to bring to his mouth and drink delivered to banduru full glass of wine. They are always different from the other servants in the noble houses of their dress, are not French or German clothes like those, and the long and light dresses with Ukrainian forward and hanging, as the Polish coat, sleeves, front halves which they always during their game Dance and raise and tuck for Sash" (§ 18). Note that, speaking about Ukraine, contentment and joy of its inhabitants, Staehelin looked at her with eyes of the court of Catherine the time, which is not consistent with the actual positions. Staehelin watched Bandurist only homes "noblemen", which they were obliged to entertain. mentions game Bandurist similar conditions occur, but work Staehelin, and other sources. for example, in the "Diary" of the bedchamber FP Bergholtz mentioned game Bandurist. Speaking about bandurist Princess M. Yu Cherkassy and other "noblemen" Bergholz notes bandura game during his visit in 1721, the house of Prince Cantemir, father of the famous satirist. Bergholz wrote: "...after the dance again set the table and while cooking made for dinner, we listened to some blind Cossack, who played the bandura, a tool that looks like a lute, with the only difference that it is not so big has less strings. He sang a lot of songs, not quite seem decent content, accompanying himself on the instrument, and came out thumbs".
Differently mentions Bandura and bandurist in Ukrainian folk songs. In one of them tells the story of the Cossack, begging him to lend Woman banduru to its sounds helped him forget the troubles and sorrows.
Repertoire Bandurist were mostly folk songs that successively passed and Russian guitar literature.
By the end of the XVIII century manor pandora disappeared from mansions. Staehelin is explained by the following reasons: "It is noticeable - he wrote - that for some 20 years, the number of these jokers Bandurist and the more and more reduced in the homes of noblemen, the stronger set them a more refined taste for Clavier, violin, traverse flute and French horn and hunting for Italian music in general...". "songbird" gives way to a violin, completeness same harmony is reproduced on the lute, could not compete with harmonic possibilities Clavier. In mansions and salons aristocrats where else the Renaissance enjoyed the sounds of lute music, the second half of XVIII century begin to get involved in a string quartet and other ensembles. As accompanying instrument lute or harp replaced clavier. Means of musical expression changed due to new content music demanded tools such qualities that have not had plucked.
This occurred due to changes in social relations. The victory of the bourgeois revolution in France in 1789 has opened up new ways of development in the economic and cultural life of the people. In the field of music are also undergoing major changes: it becomes more democratic creativity of composers ; there are new genres and styles; change and forms of music making, covering all large sections of the population. This in turn is reflected in the musical instruments, particularly stringed instrument. They disappear, giving way to more sophisticated, able to convey increasingly complex compositions, and because the acoustic properties of the old tools that meet the requirements of sound chamber, no longer meet the size of the audience, where students gather. Preeminent importance and orchestra instruments, sound good in large spaces. At home, a special role is played piano, versatile tool is equally suitable for accompaniment, participation in chamber music and solo performance.
It would seem that under such conditions, along with other plucked instruments should have disappeared from the music and guitar related. However, in all European countries, the opposite occurs. For a long time played a rather modest role comped instrument, guitar in the 90 years of the XVIII century and became extremely popular in all countries. Along with the piano, it becomes the main instrument of domestic music-making. Thanks also performing activities Dzhulyani M., G. Gat, F. Sor, D. Aguado, M. Carcassi and other prominent guitarists who started from the end of the XVIII century to act on stage, guitar acquires meaning and concert instrument. The main causes of guitar pop in the late XVIII century, it should be recognized: a) improvement tool, b) its portability and versatility, and c) more affordable and accessible to all sections of the population.
What is reflected improvement tool?
Even when the guitar was five string, its highest single double string replaced, more convenient to play the melody. Following this single steel and other strings (strings were upper intestinal or metal, lower - WRAPPED cantle). In the second half of the XVIII century "Spanish" became known not only five-string, but a six-string guitar. The addition of the 6th string increased performance capabilities of the instrument. Honor of this improvement in Germany attributed instrumental master August Otto in Jena, but widespread proliferation of six-stringed guitar suggests that not only in Germany but also in other countries birth "shestistrunki" caused by live performance practice. Steady then build six-string guitar
Along with the six-string at the turn of XVIII-XIX centuries existed and five-string guitar, but its days were already numbered. Has begun to attract attention to adding the 7th string that took place in France, Germany, Poland and especially in Russia. In the first decade of the XIX century in the West has been enhanced six-string guitar, while in Russia are beginning to rival six- and seven-string guitar. If the first seven-string system was not sufficiently stable, then the system with the introduction of G major "semistrunka" in Russia is gaining a dominant position. It gets the name "Russian" with her guitar and guitar art approval in Russia began to develop other than in the West, ways.
Founder of guitar art in Russia hitherto considered AO Sichra. His contemporary, the author of the first printed work on the history of Russian seven-string guitar MA Stakhovich wrote about him as an "inventor" a guitar. However, he pointed out, for example, such details recorded them in 1840 that "for the first time Sichra made device experience in Vilnius seven-stringed guitar in the late 1790's, and perfected it in Moscow".
Simultaneously Stakhovich noted that Sichra" also played a six-string guitar, and being gifted with a strong musical talent and has reached the degree of the harp virtuoso, he at the end of the last century, when he was in Moscow, invented make six-stringed guitar instrument more complete and closer to harp arpeggios and together and more melodic than the harp, and tied for seventh string guitar; however, it changed its structure, giving the six strings of a group of two tonic chord tone G-dur..».
Adoption Stakhovich that Sichrow was the inventor of the seven-string guitar and the creator of its salt majeure failure repeated throughout the XIX century.
For example, at the end of XIX century A. Famintsyn wrote: "At the end of the 1790s, in Vilna, the harp virtuoso, famous later as a guitarist, Andrei Osipovich Sichra made an attempt to improve went down while in use six-string guitar, adding to it the seventh string; he changed, according to that system it follows by bringing it to a special arpeggios his instrument - the harp".
Dedicated in his work on Sichra whole chapter titled "Who invented the Russian seven-string guitar", VA Rusanov, based on information reported in the "Explanatory Dictionary of the Russian Language" VI Dahl of the seven-stringed "Polish" guitar and application in 1806 in Germany, seven-stringed guitar guitarist Sheydlerom, concludes that " the addition of the seventh string in Russia AO Sichrow, while the seven-string guitar was and abroad, has no historical basis".
At the same time he denies Sichrow and role of the creator in G major, building seven-stringed guitar, guitar such as used in Russia before the appearance in Moscow Sichrow related, according to available data from Roussanova to 1805 (published sonatas for seven-stringed guitar I. Kamensky in 1799 and others).
Correctness of the views expressed by Rusanov, supported by a single ad in French, placed in the newspaper "St. Petersburg Vedomosti" (1803, ¹ 37). This announcement Petersburg guitarist wishing Ganf offered their services to teaching the game on a seven-stringed guitar with systems
Arguing that this system makes it easier to play the guitar, allows full harmony in the accompaniment, he referred to the changes that have occurred since the seven-string guitar in France, where they advertised "new" system was supposedly well recognized. To confirm his words Ganf invoked Article Sheydlera in "Leipzig music paper" (1801, ¹ 4). Soon after, in 1805, released his own Ganf School for seven-string guitar, but they propagandized "French" system, apparently met with no sympathy from the Russian guitarists. "with brilliant insight seized' for this system and developed and established an exemplary method of playing this instrument".
This position is expressed by Rusanov, repeated in all subsequent works on guitar in Russia. However, a careful study of historical materials, it is also not tenable. Being neither a seven-stringed guitar inventor or creator of a salt - major tuning, Sichrow was not a pioneer in techniques of the game and a seven-string guitar that system.
There is no doubt that the spread of the guitar was prepared by the whole course of development of Russian musical culture, but the first who can claim a significant role in promoting the seven-string guitar was the author of the first Russian School Games this guitar - Czech guitarist and composer Ignaz Geld. This musician is now forgotten, but Czech sources indicate the beginning of the XIX century, that his numerous writings used in Russia during his lifetime recognition and love.
Ygnats Held was born in 1766 in Trebechovice (Gogeybruke). He was the eldest son of a local doctor and was at that time a good general and musical education. Starting a musical career as a young child singing in a church in Prague and, further, in Hradec Kralove, he, along with the study of the humanities (father imagined him as a future lawyer), seriously engaged in music. As a result, he has acquired reinforced exercises gaming skills on some string and wind instruments. Early death of his father forced 17-year-old young man to seek his fortune in a foreign land. In 1783 Held went to Poland, where, thanks to good manners, good manners and musical talent was hospitably received in the homes of aristocrats.
After a while he went to St. Petersburg, where he joined the Russian army, which operated under the command of Potemkin against the Turks. Held took part in the hostilities, visited Crimea participated in the storming Ochakova and got the promotion of officers. After the death of him who favored Potemkin, followed in 1791, Held returned to Poland. Here he joined the Polish army, very quickly received the rank of major, degree of nobility and even the title of the royal chamberlain. Brilliant career started Gel'd soon broken. He took part in the Polish uprising and when it was suppressed, was among the prisoners. Held over two years remained in Russian captivity. His future seemed bleak. Unexpected twist in the fate of Held occurred in 1797, when the throne Paul I. The new emperor, who broke with the traditions of its predecessor, Catherine II, showed "royal favor" against the Polish prisoners. He freed Kosciuszko and his associates, among whom was Geld. Having freedom, Geld, however, was in a difficult position. Any professional career in Russia for him was excluded.
At this difficult time in his life he came to the aid of music. He became a teacher of music and in 1798 published in St. Petersburg three polonaise for piano and School - to seven-stringed guitar tutorial, called «Methode facile pour apprendre a pincer la guitare a sept cordes sans mattre». It was first published in Russian guitar school. Apparently modest position taken in St. Petersburg, was not satisfied of Held and in 1800 he moved to Moscow.
As indicated by his contemporary biographer G. Dlabash, "spell of his beautiful voice - tenor associated with the workshop on the English game (? -B. V.) on guitar and piano, made it a real Orpheus and won him the love by giving lessons in profitable many representative buildings of Moscow". In 1802 published the second edition Geld Schools for seven-stringed guitar, dedicated to Empress Elizabeth, and in 1806 - the third, supplemented Assembly Russian songs containing 40 Russian and Ukrainian songs. In addition, the period of life in Moscow Geld published a wide variety of music. Among them are a cycle of romances on texts by German poets, dance music (polonaise, country dances, mazurkas, Ecossaises, waltzes, quadrilles), marches (including Funeral March for the funeral of Count Sheremetev) Serenades and Divertimenti. They were published in a piano presentation, for the seven-string guitar solo or in an ensemble with violin, and even for an ensemble of wind instruments. Suffice it to say that in print and Moscow nototorgovtsami Reynsdorpom Kertselli catalog selling music in 1806 appear six Polonaises for brass composition I. Gel'd marked opus 28.
Creative and educational activity of Held in Moscow, which brought him fame and prosperity, apparently not satisfied with the musician. Using patronage led. book. Constantine Pavlovich, Held moved in Pernau (now Pärnu), where he was appointed inspector of the port. Soon he was transferred to the same position in St. Petersburg (1808), where he combined his duties with musical activity. In 1812 he again reissued his, has already received recognition School for seven-stringed guitar, "with a detailed interpretation of the music in general".
Geld has promoted not only the seven-string, but the six-stringed guitar. He published the School for six-string guitar with text in Russian and German, entitled "Enhanced guitar school for six strings, or manual self-taught to play the guitar". Despite the dogmatic statement by sections, in the School of Held met very valuable thoughts. Since 1812 the magazine also published Held for Six "Spanish" guitar, named "St. Petersburg troubadour, or collection of the best songs, arias and Rondo to accompany singing with a guitar".
Especially widely unfolded creative activity of Held after the war of 1812. During this period, in addition to various reissues Divertimento for seven-string guitars are published new composed for guitar and piano ballads, many Polonaises and as a tribute to time marches (Moscow police Marsh, Marsh, dedicated Bagration Cossack march or Farewell Olisa, etc.) - Many editions of his patriotic works go on sale for charity to help victims of war (Russian ballad exemption Polotsk, Elegy on the death of Kutuzov, etc.). As the text of the romance and choirs Geld often used verses of the poet Andrei Nikitin.
Having frequent communication with the publishers of his works, Geld came to think about the advisability furnishing typography where they could, without intermediaries, not only printed his works, but also works by other composers. In 1814 Geld opened in St. Petersburg "music printing press" start typing notes and taking orders for printing engravings.
However Sheet publishing activities of Held was not destined to unfold. In 1816 Geld died at Brest-Litovsk.
One of his last publications were the "latest Russian songs for seven-stringed guitar, dedicated to Ms. Priklonsky nee Izmailovo". Russian Collection contains 50 songs, harmonized Holder (without variations). Each song is preceded by a few chords (cadences) destined for prelyudirovaniya to the tone in which it was given song.
About how much weight had musical activities of Held for Russian guitarists and, in particular, its School for the seven-string guitar, shows the following. When in 1819 one of the most talented students Sichrow, SN Aksenov, decided to publish them found new ways of playing the guitar, then the basis of his leadership, he took a seven-stringed guitar for the School of Held and not any other. This would have happened if the system and guitar technique Gel'd not coincide with the techniques used by Aksenov and Sichrow. It follows that, obviously, Russian gitaristika early XIX century formed under the influence of Held teaching facilities, which should be recognized and to a greater extent than Sichrow, the founder of the game on the Russian seven-string guitar.
Whether there has been the introduction of "semistrunki" positive significance for the development of Russian art of the guitar and has a seven-stringed guitar whether advantages over the six-string? This question is not lost and the severity of these days, divided into two guitarists almost irreconcilable camps, each of which resulted in all sorts of "for" and "against" in defense of his views. If it was purely theoretical fundamental value, for guitarists practitioners from its resolution depended very much and in performance and especially in pedagogy.
It should be said that the enmity and six semistrunnikov really escalated only the beginning of XX century. In the first decades of the XIX century of antagonism between them, there was little relationship between the supporters and the game on one form or another guitar proceeded quite peacefully. For their specifications are curious passage from the memoirs of guitarist NP Makarova. In 1837 he arrived in Moscow. Staying at the hotel, he was in his room playing guitar. After graduating from the game, he listened to the sounds of other guitars, distributed in the neighborhood. "In this game, - writes Makarov - were the power and the extraordinary fluency and flawless clarity and tenderness and expression, and deep feeling. What a crescendo, and what morendo! In short, there was everything that I then sought and that he had purchased many years later, after exercise and most persistent efforts...
Nearly ended the game behind the wall, I sent my man to find out who was my neighbor. It turned out that it was Tula landowner Pavel Ladyzhenskii (AP Ladyzhenskii. - BV). I immediately went to him and introduced himself. He was extremely kind to me and willingly told me some details about yourself. He played a seven-string guitar and was one of the students Sichrow when the latter enjoyed great popularity in the whole of Russia. Served for a reasonable period in the Guard, Pavel resigned and retired to his estate Tula, engaging management, but without giving up and his favorite instrument. I spent it all evening. He played a lot and still charming. Charm of its games on me was so great that I immediately announced that he intends to move from six to seven-string guitar. But Pavel was so conscientious and impartial, told me:
- In vain. I do not advise you to throw a six-string guitar, which has huge benefits and advantages before nasheyu seven-stringed, the more that you have a great talent and has a very developed mechanism... This meeting decided then my musical destiny, and if I play and play decently on guitar, the culprit - Pabel A. Ladyzhenskii with whom I subsequently supported acquaintance".
A different relationship proceeded six and semistrunnikov at a later time. "Odd or Even?" - Under this heading in the years 1904-1906 appeared in the magazine "Guitarist" series of articles VA Rusanov, not only to defend the right to independent existence seven-stringed guitar, but trying, hushing achieve shestistrunnikov prove its benefits six-string guitar before. Controversy erupted based solely on points more or less convenience, difficulty or ease of execution plays guitar on one form or another tool. The controversy around this problem that erupted in the magazine, almost tangible results were not given. They would rather strained relations between the guitarists, took the opposite view.
The only advantage of the seven-string guitar, judging by the statements involved in the dispute parties, is the best opportunity, ie, the relative ease of recovery on it simple arpeggiated chords. Performance of musical works of art recognized and equally difficult for the six- and seven-stringed guitar. However big trump shestistrunnikov was the fact that the entire world was created guitar literature for six-string guitar; for this guitar was developed due to the rich concert and teaching practice technique of playing the instrument, which could oppose semistrunniki not too extensive Russian literature and guitar technique, not backed by the appearance on the concert stage outstanding virtuosos.
Differences arising from the Russian guitarists in the prerevolutionary period, preserved to this day. Arriving in the USSR foreign virtuoso guitarist unfamiliar with semistrunkoy entrenched in Russia, expressed surprise to learn of its existence. Most categorical in this sense expressed Andre Segovia, whose credibility as a musician and guitarist widely recognized. In 1926, having arrived in the Soviet Union and become acquainted with Russian guitarists, he wrote: "I have been asked why I play the 6, not 7 strings. You can ask why the violin virtuoso cello playing and not by 5 and 4 strings. All the possibilities of guitar strings enclosed in 6; extra string bass reinforcement, upsetting the balance of the traditional guitar volume and does not give any ease. However, the addition of strings always produced by amateurs, who ought to seriously work on tools and techniques to be content strum a few banal motives. I would advise them to add a finger on the hand than the string on the guitar".
Approximately in the same sense and expressed the largest Soviet musical authorities. For example, composer, professor SN Vasilenko said that "the benefits are obvious six-string guitar for any musician in the sense of the present system, and available on a rich literature".
Academician Asafiev, prefer six-string guitar and wrote plays for her, nevertheless made a reservation about the "peculiarities and properties of the seven-string guitar, which confirmed the rights of its historically fixed viability in Russia and the former Soviet Union is now".
How do we explain the statement in Russian seven-stringed guitar musical practice and its viability for such a long time ? Answer to this question can only conditions under which happened guitar playing music and literature destined for execution. Guitar art development in the West and its heyday in the first third of the XIX century, followed the line of instrumental expression. Hobby playing guitar shape in a clearly marked professionalism, characterized by high technology ownership instrument virtuosos and the advent of the relevant literature. Guitar in the West was mainly used as a solo and ensemble instrument. Unlike the West, the development of Russian music in the era doglinkinskuyu flowed under the sign of Russian songs in the implementation of various, mainly simplest forms. Limbo Russian Romances, operatic arias and instrumental forms occur on the basis of folk songs. In home music-making early XIX century is dominated by songs - songs with instrumental accompaniment and a simple variation on the theme of folk songs. Seven-string guitar was the tool that best meets the objectives of domestic music-making. Its main purpose was the accompaniment. The possibility of more rapid development of elementary akkordiki gave her an advantage over shestistrunkoy.
A close relationship with the seven-stringed guitar folk song and domestic romance and defined the direction of its use as a solo instrument. Free improvisations on folk songs and variations on the theme song became the form in which most significantly manifested themselves Russian - semistrunniki guitarists. They were lovers of musical entertainment, often talented, was not asked to make a play on the guitar his profession. Enjoys playing the guitar and professional musicians, but the guitar did not become their specialty. Among guitarists semistrunnikov first half of XIX century notable are AO Sichrow and MT Vysotsky, the guitar work which was on a professional level. The first was an ardent promoter of the seven-string guitars and close teacher - practitioner, the second - an extraordinary self-taught composer and talented performer, whose work, however, was confined to the framework of old Moscow.
The same function as the seven-string guitar in the early decades of the XIX century in Russia and served shestistrunka, but she was more connected with guitar art of the West. Acclimatized initially in the higher circles of society, it was accompanied by singing French songs and Italian canzonet often used in ensembles with other instruments. Then used as a solo instrument, she familiarized Russian audience with samples of Western music (dance, excerpts from operas), which is partly done and seven-string guitar. However shestistrunka acquainted with the original guitar work of the West and with instrumental achievements of Western guitarists who came to give concerts in Russia.
The most important representative of the game on a six-string guitar in Russia was M. Sokolovsky (except ambitious attempts N.Makarova acquire international fame). However Sokolovsky concert activity proceeded in the middle of the XIX century, when interest in guitar art in Russia and the West had already been lost. Besides, Sokolovsky was only guitar virtuoso, whereby his performing activity was soon forgotten. In the first third of the XIX century in Russia competed guitar and piano. It quickly gained popularity in all strata of society.If at the end of the XVIII century the guitar played mostly at court and in the homes of aristocrats, already in the first years of the XIX century it gets spread among poorer sections of the population. Even then, the guitar as a democratic instrument began to emerge dismissive attitude of some professional musicians. One of those who lived in Moscow German Kapellmeister I. Kessler, who watched the musical life of the city, wrote in 1801 to his homeland: ".. and it would be very unfortunate if this excellent tool (it was a piano. - B. V.) is to some extent supplanted empty guitar which has recently become quite popular here. But I think that our music lovers will soon see that this tool - just musical butterfly, the beauty of which - a little pollen on the wings...
With regard to the higher circles of society German Kapellmeister to a certain extent he was right.
Guitar in the coming years supplanted the piano, but then the number of produced literature for these instruments and its contents indicate their rivalry. Many variations on the Russian song, compose for piano and guitar, seven-string guitar especially, very similar to each other on compositional techniques, as noted doglinkinsky period Russian pianism and Russian guitar art. It is difficult to say for which of these tools was made more for the purpose of fudge original patterns and bright colors are examples of folk art.
Originating under the same conditions and going almost level during the first third of the XIX century, Russian art of the piano and the guitar went further in different ways. Russian pianism, enriching achievements of the West, confident heading out to win international recognition of its identity and high technical perfection. It turned out to represent the name of the greatest Russian composers and performers. Glinka, Balakirev, Rubinstein, Tchaikovsky and other Russian composers classics successfully composed piano pieces from miniatures to concerts with the orchestra; brilliantly toured in Europe and America with Russian and Western repertoire Russian pianists.
Russian guitar art, moving initially with piano, the late 30s was to degrade, not giving in the coming years, not a single significant work, not a single artist of world importance.
In a similar situation appeared to the middle of the XIX century and guitar art in Western Europe. F. Schubert and Berlioz, incidentally, perfectly played guitar and notes its valuable qualities, - the last of the big names whose musical activity was associated with the guitar. Further, we can note a rare, mainly in relation to the color palette, the use of guitars in some operatic works ( Weber, Gounod, Massenet, Verdi, etc.) and a number of minor pieces for guitar third-rate composers.
Piano, violin and cello strongly pushed' guitar with a concert stage. In the West, it has almost disappeared from the home and use.
The reason for declining interest in the guitar was not so much the relatively weak sound of the instrument as a means of musical expression complicate. Execute complex in texture works both solo and accompaniment guitar turned out to be removed. Major composers did not compose for the guitar. Before guitarists became closely the problem of expanding the repertoire. In the absence of original plays that use specific features of guitar sound, they went through the guitar transcriptions of works intended for performance on other instruments, mainly piano ( Beethoven sonatas, etc.). Achieve great success in this way, of course, failed. Trying to increase the harmonic possibilities of the instrument, guitarists began to resort to increasing the number of strings on a guitar. This was done as guitarists in the West, and Russian and shestistrunniki semistrunniki. Increasing the number of strings necessitated extension fingerboard, which inevitably difficult playing technique, creating the same neck with several additional bass strings made cumbersome tool; range expanded slightly, usually used only empty string bass, acoustic properties deteriorated equipment even more difficult.
Another attempt at adaptation to the execution of complex guitar works - abandoning it as a solo instrument and application in the second duet with guitar, sometimes to build a fourth or third above normal (quart or tertsgitara). Such a path, for example, went Sichrow in the later period of its activity. However, such a restriction and limitation guitar ensemble performance features only could not satisfy guitarists.
Finally, the guitar was used as a solo instrument with piano accompaniment, resorted to what some Western and Russian guitarists. However, in this case the use of the guitar was defective. Its harmonic possibilities are minimized by the same melodic expressiveness she obviously inferior so melodious instruments such as violin and some others.
In short, none of these ways would not let out of the repertory of the crisis, which was the guitar, to the middle of the XIX century, both in Russia and in many other countries.
Birthplace of the Renaissance art of playing six-string guitar became Spain. The first major composer, who stressed the value of the guitar and understand its leading role in Spanish music was Mikhail Glinka. Traveling around the country, he became acquainted with the Spanish folk songs and dances, mainly through guitarists. Letters from Spain and "Notes" Glinka repeatedly mentions meetings with guitarists, from which he recorded the precious samples of folk music. In the "Notes", talking about his life in Valladolid in 1845, Glinka says, "In the evening we were going to the neighbors, neighbors and acquaintances, sang, danced and talked. Between familiar son of one of Gdansk merchant named Felix Castilla, smartly played guitar, especially Aragon Hoth, which, with its variations, I kept in memory and then in Madrid, in September or October of the same year, made it a play named Capriccio brillante, which is later, on the advice of Prince Odoevskogo called Spanish overture".
In his great symphonic works - "Night in Madrid" and "Jota Aragonese" - Glinka displayed the characteristic guitar sonority means other instruments. Stylized guitar sonority and subsequently used by other Russian composers in those cases when they wanted to give a Spanish flavor to his works ( Glazunov - "Raymonda", Balakirev - "Spanish Serenade", Rimsky-Korsakov - "Capriccio Espagnol", Napravnik, "Serenade Don Juan", etc.). Spanish music and guitar - almost synonymous, evidence of their close connection. Spanish national music revival that began with the end of the XIX century, contributed equally and composers and guitarists. Founder of a new period of guitar art in Spain was Francisco Tarrega (1854-1908). His creative activity as a composer, and even more as a guitarist -teacher had a great influence on the further development of Spanish music. His contemporary, Isaac Albéniz (1860-1909), a brilliant representative of the new direction of national music, creates works that attract the attention of the general freshness of folk melodies and rhythms. Is the basis of their popular guitar art that particularly affects many piano plays Albeniz, representing a kind of guitar processing originals. Even more attention to the guitar Enrique Granados (1867-1916) and Manuel de Falla (1876-1946), creating original pieces for guitar. Disciples and followers Tarrega - Emilio Pujol, Miguel Lobet, Andre Segovia, Maria Luisa Anido his concert activity in Europe and America put the Spanish guitar art in the first place. Gaining general acceptance of it, but later, after the First World War.
Reaching full bloom, the art of music in Spain with Franco's rise to power begins to fall. Top musicians emigrate Manuel de Falla). Guitar music baton passed to Latin America, where, as in Spain, the guitar has always been the most widely used in folk music-making. This creates a number of guitar works, which becomes the basis for the Argentine, Brazilian, Chilean, Cuban and Mexican folklore. Learning to play the guitar there is equated learning to play other instruments.
With the 20 - ies of XX century guitar finds a new use in jazz, where it is used for the purpose of harmonic support. Its weak sonority compensated using a plectrum, electrical. The invention of radio, film and television sound positively affects the guitar art as bad audio guitar in large premises ceases to play the role of braking. Modern means of recording so perfect that make the game outstanding guitarists domain any lover of music.
If the six-string guitar for a strengthened global recognition, otherwise fate of Russian seven-string guitar. In the 30- ies of the XIX century it as a solo instrument, met the same sad fate as the six-string guitar. However, being closely associated with Russian folk song, domestic romance, she continued to perform successfully the role of accompanying instrument. Demands a lot of skill to her performance in this regard will be charged. Changed only social circle who used guitar. Of the higher circles of society, it migrated to the middle and then into urban poor. One of the music reviewers late 40 -ies of the XIX century, remembering the past, wrote that "have already passed those blissful days of the seven-string guitar when still beautiful creatures (society ladies and maidens. - BV) was accompanied by a silver saber his voice first and second chord tone or tone With A...". This reviewer felt that "seven-string guitar was lost in the general opinion, because the sounds of it, the gates, the girls became red crack nuts".
Arrogant attitude to the guitar as a democratic instrument from the highest circles, and even on the part of the professional musicians who really took place, but the reason was not so much a tool as a repertoire that was performed on it. In the second half of the XIX century seven-string guitar has become a favorite tool of burgher circles, petty bureaucrats, merchants, clerks, etc., sang under her accompaniment of "cruel" romances. Progressive role played seven-string guitar in the first period of its existence, the beginning of XX century it was lost, and it often becomes a conductor of musical banality, indulging backward tastes philistinism. Attempts to separate amateur enthusiasts to restore its former value seven-stringed guitar as a solo instrument, undertaken in the pre-revolutionary period, are of vital importance for the future of Russian art of the guitar had not.
New flourishing art of playing guitar in Russia associated with the greatest historical event - the Great October Socialist Revolution, changed the entire economic and cultural structure of society. Since that time, as a seven-string and six-string guitar truly become important folk instruments.
In 1914 were sold in Russia 580000 plucked instruments, of which approximately one-third (mainly guitars and mandolins ) was imported from abroad. For the first five years was established Soviet music industry and in 1935 alone musical factory named after Lunacharsky released in Leningrad 455000 plucked instruments, and 168,750 of them guitars. But apart from Leningrad plucked instruments issued in Kiev, Rostov -on-Don, Omsk, Kharkov, Odessa, Tbilisi, Chernigov, Borovichy. A workshop for the industrial cooperatives was released in the same year, 36,000 guitars.
Significantly increased production of guitars after WWII. Factory named after Lunacharsky released in 1959 375 963 guitar, and for seven years has yet to issue 3150000 six-and seven-string guitars. Are there any other musical instrument that could compete on the mass propagation with guitar!
Questions as how to play the guitar is of paramount importance as a clear indication of musical and cultural level of popular music-making, requiring careful consideration and appropriate conclusions.