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Russian 7-stringed guitar
Guitar in Russia
B. Wolman
Guitar in Russia
Essay on the history of guitar art

Leningrad 1961.
Selected chapters:
  AO Sichra Translated by Google Translate

Andrey Osipovich Sikhra     Although Andrei Osipovich Sichra and was the founder of the game on a seven-stringed guitar in Russia, but his musical activities in the first half of the XIX century was so great that his name is, admittedly, can stand on the first place among the prominent Russian guitarists of the past. Unlike many contemporary professional musicians (Khandoshkin Zhilin, Raczynski, etc.) for which only playing guitar accompanied their main musical profession, Sichra, perfectly mastered the harp, still stopped on the guitar as an instrument, the most respond to his inclinations. It seems that they elected profession guitarist teacher helped a lot that the harp interested in only a few people who had the opportunity to buy an expensive tool, while the guitar was publicly available and wanted to learn it was many times more than the harp. Simultaneously Sichra teaching guitar and other musicians involved, but for some it was a random, temporary occupation, others not enough love for the cause, persistence or pedagogical talent, and sometimes musical literacy. The results of their pedagogical work with incomparable achievements Sichra School is established Russian guitarists semistrunnikov. Sichra guitar gave all his life, and in this it differs from many fans, often talented, but pays attention only guitar in his leisure hours. Finally, of particular importance in the activities Sichra was a time in which it proceeded pedagogical and creative work. Guitar in Russia was just beginning to attract attention. The heyday of Sichra coincides with the flowering of the art of playing guitar and ends at its sunset. VA Rusanov transmits the next episode very characteristic of the last years of his life Sichra, told to him by one of his disciples Sichra - VS Sarenko.
     Once going to his teacher, Sarenko found him very upset. "From the inquiry revealed that AO Sichra just returned from Stellovsky F., who was then the publisher of almost all the best guitar works. AO Sichra offered to buy his duets, which included, among other things, almost all of the opera "life for the Tsar" and "Ruslan and Lyudmila".
Above these duets AO Sichra worked long and hard, using the advice and guidance of Mikhail Glinka.
     Publisher heartlessly denied him this and returning the manuscript, said: - That you still remember the old... Now is not the time... It was, yes gone, sir!"
Sichra died in 1850, when interest in the guitar down so that his creative and pedagogical work not only could not give him the moral satisfaction, but even in his old age to provide a comfortable existence.
     Biography Sichra not rich significant events. In addition, given the facts of his life are usually in the sense of dating are inaccurate. Suffice it to say that even the dates of birth and death Sichra until recently have not been clearly established.
Questionable given date are presented and the most important events of his life - his arrival in Russia I moved from Moscow to St. Petersburg permanently.
As reported by most sources, AO Sichra, Czech origin, was born in 1773 in Vilna, in the teacher's family. Under the guidance of his father, and received his musical education as well began to play the harp, even performed concerts in Vilna. At the same time he learned to play the guitar and, having arrived in 1805 in Moscow, began there to give her lessons. Circa 1820 Sichra moved to St. Petersburg, where he continued his musical activities. December 3, 1850 Sichra died and was buried in the Smolensk cemetery in St. Petersburg.
     This information is based mainly on the testimony of M. Stakhovich need some adjustments. Stakhovich Sichra knew in his last years, when much has been forgotten, and by Sichra. Besides Stakhovich and not sought to establish the exact dates sihrovskoy biography that in the presentation Stakhovich very contradictory. For example, he wrote: "In Moscow Sichra lived 15 years, and about 1820 moved to St. Petersburg", he elsewhere pointed out that Sichra lived in St. Petersburg "fifty years" that can not be reconciled with the specified age Sichra them.
    Arrival time Sichra to Moscow should not be attributed to 1805, and to the earlier date as early as 1802 in Moscow started publishing his first guitar magazine, called "Journal de guitare a sept cordes pour Guppy 1802 par A. Sychra", Announcement "Moscow News" (1801, 19) specify the time Sichra arrival. It read: "Him on March 15, the day on Friday, in the Minor Hall Masquerades Petrovsky Theater Zigmuntovsky and Seagram (Sichra) have the privilege of giving the venerable public concert of vocal and instrumental...". Thus, it is established that the visit to Moscow Sichra held no later than March 1801.
     Also moving Sichra from Moscow to St. Petersburg was held earlier in 1820. Apparently, he was associated with Napoleon's invasion in 1812, followed by the burning of Moscow and exodus of residents there. In 1813 Sichra was in St. Petersburg. This is evidenced by a number of facts in newspaper ads. Since that time, the sale of newly reported Sichra compose works primarily not in the "Moscow" and "Petersburg Gazette". In the same newspaper in Moscow in 1813 ( 76) announced the publication of a new magazine for guitar AO Sichra titled "Meeting all sorts of plays, for the most part placed any Russian songs and dances with variations", and stated that magazine was "prepared", ie brought to Moscow. In 1818 Sichra again began to produce a guitar magazine, the second part of which is in an amount of 6 rooms, each containing 50 pieces, says the ad "Petersburg Gazette" of the same year ( 73), can be purchased in the store Ya Petsa and most Sichra at the apartment "near Chernyshev Bridge, in the village of Glen, under the number 13".
     And in the future Sichra often resorted to publish their works and transcriptions for guitar with the help of music magazines. So, in 1824 in "Petersburg Gazette" reported ( 103), that "in Sichra has the honor to notify years. Lovers of guitar music that recently released its magazine, with lithographed sheets, written by the hand of his sold at a music store Petsa, in the Great Sea, in the house at number 125 * and of the publisher, living in Chernyshev Bridge, in the corner house merchant Lapotnikov under number 32, in the annex to the 3rd floor"; Stored in the collections of the Historical Museum in Moscow on 12 issues of this magazine Sichra contain transcriptions of excerpts from the opera "Der Freischütz" Weber, "The Barber of Seville", "Tancredi" Rossini and others for one or two guitars, dance music and variations on the Russian and Ukrainian songs among which are placed "again penned", ie the second option of variations on the son " amidst the open valley "and" I Will get miles across the brook".
In 1826 Sichra guitar magazine began publication, unlike previous bore the name of "the journal of the Guitar, published Sichra containing various kinds of works, pleasant to the ear and easy to play". How many years of continued publication of this magazine, it is difficult to establish. Bibliographical sources indicate that the magazine was published in 1826 - 1829 years, but these data are inaccurate. In the Public Library Saltykov -Shchedrin, and library of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, we have found 144 rooms "Petersburg" Sichra magazine, which, according to bibliography, issued monthly. Journal splits as if on "series" for 5-12 rooms, each of which is dedicated to Sichra any of his students (mostly students). Contents - Russian songs with variations, arias from operas fashion (number of rooms, "Kozak - poet" Kavos) and dance music.
     Finally, save one issue, which placed "Couplets of various vaudeville remade for Guitar A. Sichra", and in a footnote to this number stated that "words are so verses in the album of Duras". First music album N. Duras where placed couplets (words and music) in the Journal of the Sichra vaudeville, was released in 1837. Consequently, the number 6 and found the magazine with vaudeville verses should also be attributed to the 1837 or 1838.
It is possible to find other guitar magazines Sichra. They published it almost all my life, but their content is substantially changed. All of these were "pleasant to the ear and easy to play" guitar pieces, intended primarily for students Sichra.
     According to contemporaries, AO Sichra was a modest man, not to seek fame and satisfied with the role of the teacher. If in his youth he performed in concerts, further preferred demonstration of their students. According Stakhovich, "recently he wrote mainly for two guitars, where a large, old, actually his guitar, was second (second), and accept it gave highly tuned small - sounding guitar, guitar tierce. Thus, it was often in St. Petersburg and concerts in which his students performed better with him his play. "Based on the fact that, according to the testimony of VA Rusanov, the most wonderful and large works Sichra appeared as a result of his employment with talented students, it can be concluded that the expansion of means of guitar performance was at Sichra not the result of his own concert activity, and increasing mastery of his students, which he as attentive mentor brought to the degree of virtuosity. Their achievements and it is mainly demonstrated in the salons, reinforcing their own performance. The broad Sichra concert performance was not inclined, on the one hand, due to the natural properties of its nature, on the other - constant load pedagogical work left no time for self-improvement as a performer and bring your game to a virtuoso level. Nevertheless, owned Sichra guitar very well. This is confirmed by his disciples, and those who heard him play major musicians. For example, AI Dubuc emphasized: "especially good was his right hand".
     Pedagogy - the mainstream of musical activity Sichra in which he has achieved outstanding success. Paying almost all their time students Sichra instilled in them a love for the instrument, educated taste in art, informed music theory knowledge, develop technical skills.
     According to the recollections of students paying attention Sichra on his right hand and, as indicated Stakhovich, "this important aspect of the game remains the predominant quality of his students of the St. Petersburg school, as he was harpist inexorably strict and accurate in observing lessons in his right hand", We hear right hand and not the left - he would say. - Left touches the frets, and the right extracts sounds of the strings, therefore, all the clarity and purity depend on the right hand... "Well played thing led his delight, he took a guitar and the second game of the pupil ; improvising chords and enjoying each successful modulation he admired with all youth with a sense of "Forest and mountains start dancing, listening to the music" - he often repeated with enthusiasm. How now, look at this kind face, these bright blue eyes and on his right, the venerable features decorated haired...".
     At his disciples Sichra enjoyed enormous prestige as a person and a musician. Knowledge Sichra guitar and his musical and pedagogical work appreciated greatest musicians contemporaries - Field, Varlamov, Glinka, Dargomyzhsky.
     Basing its guitar pedagogy in practice harp, Sichra never presented to the guitar too high requirements in terms of melodious tones. In this respect, and fidelity music its direction may be called "academic". However Sichra not drowned student individuality, even if not quite agree with his methods and interpretation. He strongly awakened in the pupil creativity and encourage attempts to compose. Neglecting his own interests, he included the best works of his pupils - VI carrots, SN Aksenov, OA Petrov, VS Sarenko, F. M. Zimmerman as artistic designs published in his school play on seven-string guitar. Dedicating its other pedagogical essay - "Ekzersitsii" - his disciple SN Aksenov, Sichra wrote: "Dedication to my ekzersitsii your behalf so will prove that Sichra finds its glory in talent Aksenov, and honor - in his friendship".
     Pedagogical skills Sichra evolved gradually, in the course of lessons with pupils. So, each successfully found a welcome game suddenly found some sound effect was brought to them in a special memorandum and subsequently used in teaching practice and writings. As a result of fifty years of teaching experience Sichra, at the insistence of his student VI carrots, published "The theoretical and practical school for seven-string guitar".
     Near acquaintance with the School Sichra very frustrating, as it does not reveal the positive aspects of his pedagogical method. He was a great teacher and practitioner, but a bad Methodist. No wonder, despite a series of reissues School Sichra not widely recognized and even apologists Sichra complained about her "difficulty".
     School Sichra divided into three parts. One - "On the rules of music in general" - little different from common in the middle of the XIX century and is now deservedly forgotten methodological guidelines for piano F. Gynt, etc. The most valuable part seems average, which refers to the scales and chords, showing the correct fingering and are special cases of the game, "runaway sample passages", etc. Finally, in the third part we present the proposed study for students Sichra play. School serves as a complement to a small section devoted quart guitar and arrangements for guitar duos VI Morkova.
The main drawback of Schools Sichra - lack of consistency in the acquisition of skills of playing the instrument. It's like a student is given the discretion, or rather the teacher, without whose help, in the absence of material in the School of initial training, it begins almost useless. Little attention has been paid to the School and the development of purely technical skills. There included a few studies do not change the substance of the matter. Attached to School artistic repertoire organically with the School is not bound: with no less success he could be included in any guitar collection.
After the death of his publisher O. Sichra Schools F. Stellovsky were made for its later editions added to the third part (repertoire). Increasing the total amount of school, they have not given her a great pedagogical value.
     His other works were pedagogical purpose "Practical rules, consisting of four ekzersitsiyah" dedicated SN Aksenov. This - the huge amount of studies of mixed type, not designed for the development of any one difficulty, and overcoming many. They are conceived as a kind of "high school" game on a seven-stringed guitar. Technical ingenuity they give a complete picture of limiting Requirements Sichra guitarists. In many ways Sichra interesting idea, however, could not be implemented. In artistic terms ekzersitsii little value, ragged, kaleidoscopic form. They apparently said that the method of recording, recording "on pieces of paper" was found in the course of employment with the pupils difficulties were more likely "collected" rather than combined Sichra.
     Creative heritage Sichra quantitatively unusually large. His guitar pieces published in magazines, out separate editions. All of them are written for solo guitar and duets ; only 2-3 are designed for guitar and violin. They were created in the learning and teaching purposes, as when Sichra began his teaching career, guitar Russian literature does not actually exist. Not having a great creative talent, Sichra began making arrangements for guitar, defining it and further their careers.
     Sichra almost instantly responded to modernity. All that interested the average listener, fell into the orbit of his attention and adapts for performance on guitar. Among his transcriptions are prominent opera excerpts, mostly arias - Mozart, Martin Monsini, Bualde, Bellini, Donizetti, Cherubini, Auber, Herold, Weber, Rossini, Verdi and other Western composers. And there are many transcriptions of Russian operas to Glinka inclusive. In addition to simple treatments opera excerpts Sichra often resorted to the form of a medley - mix several popular motifs from some opera.
     In early Sichra shifted and works of Western instrumental music - Haydn, Pleyel, but further limited only plays dance music - Lanner waltzes, Strauss waltzes and polkas, etc. A considerable number Ecossaises, mazurkas, waltzes, polkas, quadrilles, and was penned by Sichra though in this area and his work is original.
     Most valuable in the artistic heritage Sichra - Russian folk songs. Occupied initially quite modest place in his pedagogical repertoire, after a while they took a leading position in it. Number of songs for Guitar treated Sichra truly incalculable. Not content with a simple harmonization of songs for Guitar, Sichra, like his musical contemporaries, wrote variations on a Russian song. Some song Sichra returned repeatedly, inventing ever new variations.
     Character song treatments established at the end of his Sichra Moscow life, ie the beginning of the second decade, and has subsequently not been significant changes.
Song variation Sichra fancy, melody song remains the same throughout the variations. Polyphonic techniques he uses. Its variations - thin lace patterned passages differing times personal rhythmic durations. In most cases, and the rate remains unchanged ; only occasionally, following the classical models, introduces Sichra replaced fast - a slow variation. Several large freedom of presentation allowed them in the finals of variations, sometimes acquiring the character of a brilliant ending. Such, for example, the construction of variations on the song" Amidst the open valley", which are very popular among guitarists.
     Historical significance Sichra activity is that he was the first who showed great potential seven-stringed guitar not only as accompanying and ensemble, but the solo instrument to occupy a large place in the domestic music-making. For the first decades of the XIX century Sichra activity had enormous significance in promoting the guitar and Russian propaganda songs. With guitar accompaniment in the form of variations for this instrument Russian song brought a taste of the broad public circles, no less, and perhaps even to a greater extent than the other Russian instrumental music. Thereby been prepared progressive recognition of society high national merit music Glinka and other Russian classical composers. Excellent teacher -practitioner, enthusiast guitar AO Sichra instilled many fans interest in music and created a school - semistrunnikov Russian guitarists who became his followers.
     We must not forget, however, and the shadow side of its activities. Intensive propaganda game on a seven-stringed guitar, limited creative opportunities Sichra (they were not created any guitar concerto, sonata or other writings of a large form) shortly isolated Russian guitar art of direct communication with the developing guitar music of the West ; it is locked in a limited range and was far behind the overall development of musical culture.
     Along with A. Sichra lived in Russia and was famous as a guitarist his brother Ludwig. It is mentioned philosophy professor of Kharkov University, a decent musician, G. Hess de Calvet, in his book "Theory of Music", released in 1819. Speaking about the guitar and its varieties, he wrote that "between current virtuosos best are two brothers Sihera, Shenling etc."
     In one of the rooms "Petersburg" guitar magazine Sichra for 1826 placed the play (the song "You suppose, the cow home" with variations), the title of which read: "Dedicated to the kind brother Ludwig Osipovich Sichra". Thus, it was possible to clarify some information about LO Sichra, who was not only a guitarist - performer on the seven-string guitar, but also a composer. They were composed and published Sonata for Guitar, published in those rare guitar music VA Rusanov in the magazine "Guitarist" (1905, 6-7). Publication sonatas accompanied by the following explanation: "This Sonata - undeniably original and highly artistic work, one of the most rare and ancient works for guitar. Judging by the quality and dressing of paper on which is printed the original, it can be attributed to the end of XVIII and beginning of XIX century.
Who was this Sichra Louis ? Was he a relative or just a namesake Russian Patriarch guitarists Andrew Osipovich Sichra or this sonata is one of the earliest works of the same AO Sichra signed a different name, we do not know. If it was another Sichra, the positive is unclear how much of the original author and highly artistic works showing and music education, and technology, could be seen at one time and die in obscurity.
Impossible without also note the striking similarity of some techniques of creativity, especially in the modulations, the transition from one tone to another, with those of the author of the famous classical variations."
     VA Rusanov bewilderment about the authorship of the sonata is no longer in need of clarification. The author of the sonatas, as we have seen, is the brother AO Sichra - Ludwig. His sonata, indeed, is of interest, as the only remaining major piece created at the beginning of the XIX century in Russia for seven-stringed guitar. But to call it an original and highly artistic works, as it does Rusanov, by no means be.
Sonata L. Sichra devoid of any national traits. This is - a three-part work, written in the character of the Viennese classics, but without their skill. All three are interrelated parts of a sonata ; One part goes to another. Sonata begins heroic theme, which oppose the other two, contrasting with her. Thus, I is not part of the usual sonata allegro, but only show, demonstration of different nature themes. Likewise, the Polonaise (II part) is not developed in the conventional three-part form, and, as promelknuv improvisation goes into undeveloped Rondo (III part). Overall, the Sonata L. Sichra speaking about melodic talent of the author, his acquaintance, though not very deep, with Western classics, indicating a lack of possession of the musical form. This - in the spirit of improvisation talented sonatas, but not Sonata. No wonder that the Sonata L. Sichra gone unnoticed and has been forgotten, despite the undeniably high ownership of its author techniques of guitar technique.
     Creative activity LO Sichra yet still not fully clarified, but no doubt that it is largely, especially in pedagogical terms, inferior guitar activities of his brother.
Number of students, which was engaged throughout his long life, "the patriarch" Russian guitar art AO Sichra, incalculable. Most of them - lovers, but many of them are people so vividly manifest themselves, without mentioning that the history of Russian art of the guitar would have been depleted. The degree of ownership guitar they had different, were different and their individuality, they often differ, and techniques of the game. Nevertheless, they can be called members of the "school" as defined Sichra artistic direction. Its characteristic features were - creative independence, in-depth with the handling of folk songs and wider aspirations for the democratization of music. Sichra apprehended from these qualities and surpassing his teacher in possession of an instrument of his students in a short time raised the Russian guitar art to a considerable height.
     The most prominent representative of the school was Sichra SN Aksenov.
Semyon Aksenov (1784-1853) was the son of the landowner and the Ryazan childhood was sufficient for the landed gentry of the time education. Their careers, he began a 17- year old boys in the modest role of the watchman, and then the clerk commissariat department in Moscow. Being made in 1804 petty official, he served in various "departments" for about six years, and in 1810 he retired.
    Living in Moscow, Aksenov took guitar lessons from A. Sichra and made major strides, already showing a special love for the folk song. As pointed out by M. Stakhovich, "Aksenov first started exclusively handle guitar for Russian songs and developed especially melodious her side - Ligat".
     Aksenov craze Russian song had a great impact on Sichra, hitherto occupied by treating mainly works of Western music. Melody of performance, which featured game Aksenov, not too liked Sichra likens guitar harp guitar and is considered more iconic than expressive instrument. Aksenov applied legato and vibrato he called "gypsy music" but was forced to reckon with these individual characteristics of his talented pupil. Significant was the guitar technique Aksenov. "Ekzersitsii" started Sichra were designed to Aksenov, says that his big successes in this area. At the time of departure from Moscow Sichra Aksenov was already known as the best guitarist - singer.
     In 1810 Aksenov moved from Moscow to St. Petersburg and entered the service again. His guitar playing, he soon became known to the general SK Vyazmitinov, a great lover of music (it was written in 1781, the opera "new family"). From Vyazmitinov, made soon minister of war, and then chairman of the Committee of Ministers, Aksenov quickly overcame bureaucratic stage career, finishing at the end of its rather high position in the Ministry of the Navy.
     Settling in St. Petersburg, Aksenov began to produce "new magazine for seven-stringed guitar, dedicated music lovers". The magazine placed Russian songs with variations, including variations have become especially popular for the song "Amidst the open valley". In addition to variations Aksenov Russian songs in the journal found variations on an aria from "The Marriage of Figaro" by Mozart and romance Aksenov for singing with guitar accompaniment "Oh meets all spring". Following the publication of the journal Aksenov has published several works in the variational form (a variation on the song "Oh, what are you, darling, cheerless, sit", "I blame the people", "Kamarinskaya" dedicated Sichra, etc.). From the works of Western music they were treated only "Hunting" Dussek and aria L. Maurer. Number of printed pieces Aksenov was comparatively small.
     Aksenov very highly of Sichra as a teacher. Already mentioned "Ekzersitsii" Sichra were published thanks Aksenov, who took care of all the work and the cost of their printing and distribution. In 1817, before the release of "Ekzersitsii" in light Aksenov wrote: "Mr. Sichra, so well known to fans of guitar music in talent, art, and on the practical details of this tool, now composed of four large ekzersitsii thereof in colors, do, sol and re major and si mineur. Sim Russian seven-string guitar writing boldly before all can be proud of in the light of the hitherto known sketches, ekzersitsiyami and schools, issued on guitar. Ekzersitsii was blown Sichra published under the title: "Practical rules to play the guitar in ekzersitsiyah consisting of four large" and will make a very considerable edition. these rules recommended for all connoisseurs, lovers and students of the guitar. Only long-term experience and the activities can produce those rare works, more deserving of attention and respect because they are made for a very new tool. In four of ekzersitsiyah Sichra are the same amenities, the same beauty and the same art of music than other famous tools, long handled, and the guitar has become along with them. Connect harmony with the melody in so ekzersitsiyah artificial transitions of tone in another account for hearing lovely music circuit modulations everywhere deliberate and prinorovlennyh. All passages in ekzersitsiyah now, as in the classic essay, meaning the figures showing the frets and fingers. One must add that it is very capable and is also useful for the six-string guitar and five string. I can safely call these things work the music source, means every one will benefit. This is the key to the mystery play skillfully on a nice instrument.
     Score this work Sichra clearly exaggerated, but given the very Aksenov review characterizes as a man deeply committed to his teacher. Interestingly there is also evidence Aksenov, that back in 1817 in Russia were not only common seven-string and six-string, five-string guitar but for which, in his opinion, "Ekzersitsii" Sichra were quite suitable.
     In 1819 came out of print "School for seven-stringed guitar Ignatius background of Held, considered, revised and expanded S. Aksenov". I. Gel'd while was no longer living, and his school was considered the best methodological guidance of how to play guitar and had, despite a number of reissues of high demand. Therefore, when a bookseller B. Plavilshchikov proposed for a new edition edited School of Held, Aksenov willingly agreed to School making their own additions. He wrote a short chapter - " The way to play the guitar harmonic sounds", which explained methods of extraction of natural and artificial harmonics on the guitar. These he often imposes his own writings. Besides, for guidance plays as were available at the School of Held, Aksenov own small little pieces attached pedagogical purpose, process and sketches. All this is done quite competently and with the artistic side, and methodologically.
     Removing flazholetnyh sounds apply Aksenov, regarded by his contemporaries as a major "domestic invention". In the journal "Notes of the Fatherland" reported that: "Now a famous lover and a great guitar player SN Aksenov discovered a way to play upon this instrument harmonically all the notes. Hitherto known were the only three frets - 4, 5 and 7, emits a flazholetnye sounds. G. Aksenov extended them to all semitones, brought in and adapted so that everyone who plays guitar, could easily perceive it opening as soon attentively examine the description thereof, placed in a new school of guitar lovers harmony with... gratefully learn about this opening, because nothing could be nicer flazholetnyh guitar sounds: it then becomes even more delicate wind instruments".
     Aksenov tried to write not only for guitar. He was close to literary circles and in 1818 was a member of the Free Society of Lovers of Russian Literature, magazines which put his songs on texts by contemporary poets - Glinka, Nechayev, etc. ("Flowers - one consolation to me", "I will not say you - I love you", "You wanted a song, Chloe", etc.). Although these romances published in the journal for singing with piano accompaniment but invoice clearly says "guitar" intent of the author.
     After 1830, and perhaps a little earlier, musical activities SN Aksenov stopped. According to M. Stakhovich, "recently his life who could rarely hear it, and it is too close to people or relatives. According to their opinion, it was an unusual game, but these cases were too rare. Cheating as" told me mined forgotten his excellent and famous guitar out of the box, taken from room to room, so he did not think, and that he accidentally picked it up and playing, zafantazirovalsya. Then only you could hear it".
    One of the most talented students AO Sichra was Vasily Svintsov make playing the guitar in their profession. Perhaps it was only a virtuoso, began performing in concerts with the big seven-string guitar. Follower Sichra, he performed in concerts, mostly not with own compositions and plays with Sichra and Aksenov, only adding to this repertoire of several individual works. His concert career began in Moscow Svintsov. March 13, 1825, he gave " in the house of her Excellency Anna Ivanovna Annenkova great vocal and instrumental concert". Under this name then arranged in Lent mixed concerts. Organization of the concert took on the initiator of the concert, the orchestra invites artists and enjoyed fame.
     Here is the program of this concert, concerts typical of the time:

Part 1 [ first branch ]

1. Eliza Overture from the opera, Op. Herubini [ Cherubini ]

2. Ms. Phyllis will sing an Italian aria

3. G. Svintsov will play guitar variations, Op. of Rode (Sol majeur), was transcribed Tsigroy [ Sichra ]

4 Semenov will play the violin Adagio and Rondo, Op. of Maurer

5. Titov, the first clarinetist imp. Mosk. Theatre, will play the Allegro from Concerto, Op. Bermon

Part 2 [ second branch ]

6. Overture from the opera "Don Giovanni", Op. Mozart

7. G. Field will play Notturno Rondo and his work

8. G. Lavrov will sing three songs, words of VA Zhukovsky, music Op.

A. H Verstovsky.

9. G. Svintsov will play Rondo Op. Field's was of Russian songs, Arrangement of Aksenov.

10. Finals.

    One day after this concert Svintsov participated in a concert held for charitable purposes "in favor of deprived of Wittich". It was arranged in a concert hall imp. Moscow theater and it was attended by the most prominent artists of the Moscow - pianists Field, Reinhardt and Shoberlehner, Schultz harpist, violinist Semenov and vocalists - singer and singer Phyllis Lavrov.
     March 14, 1827 Svintsov again gave a concert in Moscow. It was the orchestra, performing the overture Megyulya and Weber, as well as lead and comped other soloists. The report about the concert was written that "the very great pleasure Svintsov played Potpourri, essays and variations Aksenov Sichra to beautiful songs AF Merzlyakov: "Among the valley flat on a smooth height. "Tone strings seem reprimanding all motives. Both past pieces were arranged for orchestra AA Alyabiev".
March 20, 1827 Svintsov participated in a concert arranged Directorate imp. Moscow theater in favor of people with disabilities.
     These data suggest that in the 20s Svintsov enjoyed considerable fame. His name was on the posters next to the names of the Moscow public 's favorite pianist John Field, the Bolshoi Theatre premiere tenor Bulakhova, outstanding Italian singer Tosi. Lead Alyabyev orchestrated guitar pieces and Sichra Aksenov.
     0 Svintsov further destiny to be judged only on fragmentary information. His success was short-lived. Arriving in Russia and concert performances outstanding foreign virtuoso guitarist eclipsed Svintsov success and soon afterwards a decline in interest in the guitar made Svintsov move their live performances from Moscow to provincial towns - Rzhev, Torzhok, Tver and others where he has continued to enjoy some success. Permanent place of residence became finally Arzamas, where it is not too successfully engaged in teaching guitar. When in 1877 he was sent an invitation to come to the concerts in Klin, Svintsov answered in writing, which can be qualified as an indictment against bourgeois society, once turned away from a recognized artist and his doomed to poverty. To arrive in Klin, lead requested to send him 60 rubles, without which he could not leave. Of this money, he intended to spend 30 rubles to purchase mortgaged coats (this happened in the winter), 15 rubles to leave the family and from 15 rubles to move in the way, hoping to earn extra bit more on the way: "I will have two cases give concerts - wrote Svintsov - 60 miles from Arzamas, Vyksa where workmen 5000 different people and the British, French, Germans, etc., the second - from Vyksa Moscow (there Svintsov assumed to act in an artistic circle, but ill), from Moscow to you, then I could to stay in your apartment and be your mentor in guitar playing. "This letter is addressed Svintsov V. Sokolov, guitarist son, a student Sichra who knew lead and who wanted to help him.
Svintsov was uneducated man. His chosen profession guitarist did not deliver him nothing but material deprivation. Conditions of Russian life of the first half of the XIX century contributed little to the development of musical professionalism, and especially guitar performance. Not surprisingly, that even those who owned a guitar perfectly, there was no incentive to develop virtuosity, but rather arose regret is useless spent on improving his game time. Occurred and disappointment in his instrument. So when M. Stakhovich asked one of the prominent disciples Sichra - FM Zimmerman, who owned a perfect guitar technique, the question of why he did not become a professional guitarist, he heard in response to the following lament: "Guitar ungrateful, if I used the their abilities and works on the cello, I would have been much more satisfied with their success, for the extraordinary guitar need power, and who does not have it, he better not try for this tool". But Zimmerman, according to contemporaries, was the strongest of guitarists semistrunnikov. Despite the short and thick fingers, he possessed a phenomenal technique. Besides, it is perfectly prelyudiroval guitar, technically, it outperforms even a master of improvisation, as MT Vysotsky. Stakhovich M. Zimmermann wrote the following: "The first place I've heard of players now certainly belongs F. M. Zimmerman. Has long I know his writings, and I confess I could not understand how they can satisfactorily perform all the difficulties that occur in them, guitar... what strength, dexterity and evenness of tone ! seems this skill with him was born. Never, never hear unclean sound top and bottoms in the same strength, and besides, how easy it is to get ! fourth and fifth finger left hand work in dense bass instead of a large, and the second and third passages or fugitive busy singing the theme, because such an unusual fingering him in his works, which can not be guessed, you never hear him play. Besides that I particularly liked in Zimmerman, he not looking for subtle effects, affecting not expert and inexperienced, playing his musical and serious, he is inexhaustible in melody and melodic figures, and in this respect it is very wonderful fantasy. truth that the other guitarist is what makes Zimmerman will always appear stiffly because, firstly, that below the 12th fret it plays as freely as we sinners on fingering 5th or 7th, and sprinkles flazholetnymi passages as the fastest or diatonic arpeggios;... now his game is more of a sample passing into fantasy, interspersed his famous mazurka, waltz and other topics for which he received a fair reputation among guitarists".
     Zimmerman's creative legacy slightly, although talking about his talents. Several sketches and dance pieces - that is all that is preserved in the memory of Zimmermann. One of his best plays - "Waltz Elegy" - was published by M. Ivanov in the note annexed to his book "Russian seven-string guitar" (M. - L., 1948).
     Zimmerman material was provided to give a good income from his estates Tambov. Disillusioned with the guitar, he is completely stopped playing it. Zimmerman died in 1880.
    Another Zimmerman was another disciple Sichra - VS Sarenko. On his guitar AI Dubuc spoke as follows: "The player he was a first-class music and knew perfectly; had a lot of taste and imagination, and in general was fully developed musician. Played elegant, clean, smooth...". Sarenko by profession a physician. Born in 1814 in Voronezh, graduating from high school he entered the medical faculty of Moscow University. Becoming a military doctor, Sarenko lived for some time in Oranienbaum, then settled in St. Petersburg. Sarenko loved music. His house was wide open for artists and musicians. He visited Dargomyzhski and Mussorgsky, a famous singer who was a good guitar student Sichra, OA Petrov himself Sichra and, of course, many of his disciples: Zimmerman, Aksenov, Carrot and others disciple Morkova Palevitch Sarenko often playing guitar duets. Sarenko limited domestic music-making, and never spoke publicly. His pedagogical activity was only incidental. He demonstrated himself as an amateur composer, writing for seven-stringed guitar plays and making a few small number of transcriptions, which are distinguished from Waltz and Chopin Prelude. And it is of interest to the popular imagination at the time romance "Sometimes, it happen" M. Yu Vielgorsky.
     More productive creatively turned the other disciple Sichra - VI Carrot. As a guitarist, he did not cause much excitement, doing guitar only in passing, in addition to his musical and literary works, of which the most popular is the book "Historical Sketch of Russian opera from its inception to 1862" (St. Petersburg, 1862). Basically Carrot was a music promoter. His guitar compositions - is mostly Pieces for Two Guitars (conventional and quart - guitar), guitar and violin, guitar and piano. Well aware of the musical literature, Carrot did pretty good artistically selection of material for the transcriptions, but few take into account the specificity of the guitar, picking up such works are arranged for solo guitar is not feasible in terms of complexity. Among his treatments meet with works by Haydn, Beethoven, Rossini, Verdi, Schubert and other great composers. Considerable attention is paid Carrot and domestic music - Glinka ("Kamarinskaya", excerpts from the opera "Ivan Susanin" and "Ruslan and Lyudmila") Dargomyzhsky (terzetto and chorus of "Mermaid"), etc. carrot was released and a private school for the seven-stringed guitars, 24 Preludes in all major and minor keys, processing Russian, Ukrainian and gypsy songs. Fairly large catalog of printed works Morkova guitar guitarists used relatively little. The reason for this - the underestimation carrots guitar as a solo instrument and the lack of knowledge of all its properties. Considering as an equal guitar piano tool Carrot was forced to preserve completeness harmony arrangements do not for one guitar, and for two or for a guitar with piano accompaniment. Carrot as a composer of no interest. As for his transcriptions, then, following the path charted Sichra they largely inferior transcriptions of his teacher.
     From other students Sichra deserves some attention NI Aleksandrov, which Sichra devoted the most successful variant, Fantasy on the song "Amidst the open valley". Alexander has a large guitar technique and was the author of several works for guitar (studies ekzersitsii). One of the sketches Alexandrov published in the annexes to the book M. Ivanov.
     Another student Sichra - PF Beloshein - was known as the author of fine plays guitar, music magazines were placed in 20 - ies of the XIX century. Some of his operatic transcriptions and arrangements of folk songs come out and separate editions.
     Number of pupils AO Sichra was very great. They wrote plays, sketches, made arrangements for the guitar, but it does not go beyond enlightened amateurism. No one really big guitarist performer except, perhaps, lead in the first period of his concert activity Sichra school also failed. This is not so much to blame Sichra as the come in the second half of the XIX century the general decline of guitar art.

 

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