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Guitar in Russia
Essay on the history of guitar art

Leningrad 1961.
Selected chapters:
  NP Makarov Translated by Google Translate

Nikolay Petrovich Makarov     In 1933 he published a work of Soviet literary Eichenbaum, called "route to immortality, or The Life and Adventures Chuhlomsky nobleman Nikolai Petrovich Makarov". In this book the author has used published in 1881 memories NP Makarova as material grotesque painting the main stages of the expansion of the Russian nobility of the XIX century".This is - writes Eichenbaum - exceptional in vulgarity and class limitations fanfaronada on the subject of injuries, a Russian nobleman preterplennyh for most of the XIX century. And yet - this is a wonderful material to characterize the noble- Chuhlomsky period of Russian history. From Guard Drinking through the repurchase, the guitar, from guitar to dictionaries - this ornate, somewhat anecdotal way, done NP Makarov".
     Giving this characteristic recollections Makarova in general, Eichenbaum indicates that using the term "dvoryanskochuhlomsky" period, he started from the satirical definition of Saltykov -Shchedrin, who wrote in "Pompadour and Madame Pompadour": "Chuhlomtsy do everything - said in St. Petersburg living. They revive agriculture and trade will develop, and new breeds of livestock will breed and save the public peace!"
     Interesting that part of memories Makarova, in which he talks about the guitar and its activity as a guitarist. I should say that in this part of the memories Makarova, despite their fanfaronade very truthfully depict not only Makarova guitarist, but also the state of guitar art in Russia and in the West in the middle of the XIX century. This is - an interesting historical document that tells about trying to make the world of the Russian nobleman guitar virtuoso in the conditions under which this attempt ended in failure. It ended sadly limited by virtue of narrow class Makarova, his lack of real culture, including music.
     That's what makes elaborate on memoirs Makarova. Not because he was particularly outstanding guitarist, but because of those reasons, and now that some guitarists believe that only resistant to overcome the difficulties of playing the guitar could lead to capturing the heights of virtuosity. No matter how great were technical achievements, they are insufficient without the full development of musical culture artist. Only in the case where the artist can reveal itself as a cultural musician, he can count on success and recognition. Makarova sad experience serves as a good warning for guitarists who are fond of the technique, but underestimate the need for hard mastering musical knowledge and the development of natural music using a systematic training.
     Tracing the path Makarova guitarist, we used it as a "deathbed confession" in 1881 and published for more than 20 years before his first literary work - "sincere confession", featuring a large fresh memories, in which he talks in more detail about their guitar cases. Added to these materials after - lived memories of N. Makarov his grandson H. Engelhardt, published in 1910, and some newspaper articles.
     N. Makarov was born in Chukhloma Kostroma province in 1810, and spent his childhood nearby in the name of the father and aunt - MP Volkonskaya. In the estate of another aunt, a wealthy landowner AA spikes Makarov heard land Orchestra (sep). Sounds of the orchestra, and especially the first violin, played by a "homegrown artist Paul A." Makarov made such a strong impression that he began to take lessons of violin playing serf musician, 22 -year-old "Evdoshi" in the service of a neighboring landowner as a violinist, conductor and regent.
Received scant education at home, Makarov in 1823 went to his brother in Warsaw and in 1826 enrolled in the School Guards Ensigns. Living in Warsaw, he continued to study the violin, but any tangible results, these lessons are not given. Game Paganini, which Makarov managed to hear a concert in Warsaw in 1829, secretly made their way to this virtuoso performance (school pupils Ensigns was banned visiting theaters and concerts), has made him an irresistible impression by adopting a commitment to the violin. Even two concerts of Chopin in Warsaw in autumn 1830, which also visited Makarov did not impair the gaming experience Paganini.
Already, as an officer, Makarov took part in the suppression of the Polish uprising of 1830, was captured by the Poles, but 10 months later he returned to the Lithuanian Regiment, where he started his military service. The regiment was then transferred to the parking lot from Warsaw to Oranienbaum. Meager salary of an officer is not allowed Makarov continue learning to play the violin. He drew attention to the guitar.
     "Meanwhile, - writes Makarov - caught me in Oranienbaum guitar, and for which I took without any serious purpose. Played though the notes, but something unchallenging and unimportant, and more singing, accompanying himself on guitar, the then romances yes arias from French operas, and assayed for Italian. Finally, married, retired, settled (August 1838 - BV) in a village near Tula. and then - as if someone suddenly pricked me and instilled in me a new passion for the guitar. First-class play this instrument I did at the cost of my life, for lack of other, better, more useful. achieve this bizarre goal I devoted all my energy, all the perseverance and strength of will and a desire born of the most childish, empty reason. Some of my relatives told me once: - Wasted effort. First, the guitar - the instrument is not a concert, nothing serious, efficient play on it can not be but so unimportant songs arias with unimportant variations, and secondly, you already too late to learn to become a first-class guitarist. You are already 28 years old; not in such summer, and from an early age begin to learn what may be art, and especially music, and more to become a virtuoso and achieve fame and glory.
     Such reviews touched my most sensitive spot, scary infuriated me, especially the second point.
     So I will prove that guitar and capable of serious music, and from it we can make a concert instrument; as well as prove that and for me it's too late to become a virtuoso of the guitar. Later, however, was a more reasonable goal: to raise the guitar from the humiliating position in which it is now, and then return to her, which she took first in the thirties of this century. And in Paris, and in European capitals guitar was then in vogue. In Paris, for example, then shone Mauro Giuliani - Guitar Beethoven; Carulli, Sor, Legnani, Aguado and later Guerta. But since the thirties guitar began to fall, and in the forties completely collapsed.
     So, no sooner said than done. I began to struggle with the difficulties with the most difficult and one of the tools and naineblagodarneyshih began not with a light, but with hard: first sat down for a famous quintet Giuliani, then for his third big concert. Both plays accompaniment not quartet and piano. Comped me my wife, a student Gerke. And so together formed a program all sorts of difficulties guitar mechanism and including two of the greatest: chromatic scales and trills four fingers on two strings. I began pipping for these difficulties before nepobezhdaemyh anyone; make rational, with a metronome, which led me without fuss or hurry, with the greatest gradually from the slowest to the fastest pace from ordinary to extraordinary difficulties. In short: it was not an attack, but the correct siege of the fortress, with parallels, according to the rules of higher engineering. I practiced 10 to 12 hours a day, not excluding holidays. Sometimes - 14 and seldom less than 10 hours. Then I wrote a great piece for six-string guitar, calling it a big name concert. Two years later, and quintet, and a concert and chromatic scales in four octaves up and down, and not two, but three fingers of his right hand - for a fast paced - it all fell before me, recognized me as a winner. One trill stubborn: succumbed, but not quite. Perfect trill should hold a three qualities: speed, evenness and strength. In my own were only two: either the speed and force without roughness, or the speed and smoothness without power. But I was not discouraged. Made a pocket guitar, ie, a small oval plaque with three strings, third, to have a greater resistance and cut fingers. She developed a force I do right hand fingers, especially the nameless, the weakest, and hampered by the fact that the force, the evenness of trills. With this invention, I soon developed by the weak finger, which is almost on par with the rest: the thumb, index and middle. And warble fell before me, to combine the quality of all three".
Starting self-taught learning guitar, Makarov set himself the task of overcoming technical difficulties only guitar playing. However, he erroneously assumed peculiar while many musicians, artists, believes that technical perfection performance depends mainly on the amount of time spent on exercise. Thus believed that the independence of the fingers and force can be obtained not only by playing the instrument, but also by mechanical means. Just as pianists use dumb keyboard, wooden inserts for stretching your fingers, etc., Makarov invented " pocket guitar " by which achieved some results. However, the method is inherently Makarova was flawed. Recall though that has employed a similar system for mechanical appliances Schumann injured his hand and was forced to abandon the pianistic activities.
     In the spring of 1840 Makarov arrived in St. Petersburg. Here he is, above all, decided to ask a knowledgeable teacher guitarist. His name he does not name, saying only that it was an Italian, who enjoyed fame in guitar circles. According to Makarov, when the teacher listened to the concert performance Makarov Giuliani, then refused to give him lessons, citing the fact that Makarov better himself owns a guitar. Trying to take lessons failed". And for the better - boastfully says Makarov - not to teach, but only confusing obezoriginalit could me every guitar teacher, as usual routinists afraid of any daring novelty as hell frankincense. And then if I played bad, then it is because no one took any lessons".
Then he met Makarov 75th AO Sichrow. My meeting with him, he sends this: " After listening to me and watching the play of my concert in my manuscript fidelity to the score, he said:
     - You have extraordinary strength, speed, clarity, gloss, feel and fervor; they can be compared with the indomitable horse that rushes headlong downhill. But what you have written and called ' concert is... excuse me, not guitar music, guitar and audacity. Not only play what you wrote here, but think something to play it already has the greatest insolence. When, four years later, I again saw this old man and he no longer played a concert, and a revised and reworked from a fantasy under the name "La bravura", Sichrow stood up, slapped me a nod and said with deep feeling:
     - Now I see and understand that this is not daring and brilliantly play guitar; but not daring just for you; and for all other guitarists there is audacity. Striking, especially your power; One chord you kill our seven-string guitar".
     Sichrow was very sympathetic and kind person. Speaking of guitar "audacity" Makarov, which he tends to put his credit, he did not wish to upset the author and the right to point out that the shortcomings of his concert so great that hardly anyone of guitarists would agree to carry it out. However guitar technique, which is owned by Makarov was apparently indeed very significant.
    More specifically, although in a very polite manner, expressed his opinion about the guitar concert A.S.Dargomyzhsky Makarova. His meeting with the famous author of "Mermaid"      Makarov describes as follows: "After listening to me and my concert, he asked:
     - Do not you publish your work ?
     - Save me, God! - And you will do well. Keep it up to the time in the portfolio. After all, you have not studied any composition or counterpoint or basso?
     - And I do not know what kind of animals.
     - So, you see: in your play, which in its present form can not be called a concert, although this is a great play, play in your thoughts weight, highly original, brilliant, but they are not developed, designed, did not finish. On the unity, harmony of parts and say nothing, and even more so about the unauthorized or incorrectly allowed Septimius that composers and then present across very often. But what is striking - it is the rhythm, always and everywhere, strict rhythm; after all, you have not studied it, so, you have it in your ears, congenital. So, when you do not learn counterpoint, no, but just harmony, although the main reason to harmony, then check out his play: you can make it a beautiful thing, not even one, but two or three.
     After this frank conversation and saving good advice, I became friends with the late Alexander Sergeyitch and continued 28 years, ie, until his death, was in the best relationship with him. And I wept bitterly earlier his death: he was younger than me. The last time I saw each other and talked with him in the spring of 1868, already with the patient in the park that before Alexandra Theatre. Then I went to the village, where he learned about his death".
Makarov took the advice Dargomizhskiy and winter 1841/42, became engaged in harmony with the conductor of the orchestra of the Bolshoi Theater Czech Iogannisom. After lessons with him, and perhaps with his help, Makarov completely remade his "concert". Part of it mazurka became an independent play, the same fate has comprehended and final, in a modified tone has become part of another song. Based on material that was part of the original in Part I, Adagio and Rondo, Makarov was created much later first guitar concert, and in 1873 - the second.
     In 1841, the first public performance Makarova guitarist. It happened in a concert of amateur musicians, in Tula, Nobility meeting hall. Despite the timidity, Makarov played quite well I part Third Concerto Giuliani. Accompanied him on the piano sister Sir.doc - MS Durnovos good pianist - lover, one of the best students of Field's. After retiring from military service and having some capital, Makarov went into business relations with major drinking Otkupshchikov millionaire Kokorev and participated in his speculations. However, neither the business skill, "and considerable resources to undertake great things he did not have. Despite aristocratic arrogance, he had to settle rather modest role secondary character essentially clerk often forced to undertake the tedious journey. Such a situation did not suit and Makarova between him and his patron began differences. At the beginning of 1849 Makarov left the farming business at Kokoreva and resumed temporarily abandoned music classes".
     But - alas - said Makarov, - I have not had the same confidence in the success of achieving the goal - to be one of the first guitar virtuosos. Shake this confidence in me all kinds of rumors and most unfriendly me some reviews "strict judges and judges" in music and more of my brethren of the instrument. bray and reviewed these reached my sensitive hearing and scratched his most shameless manner. say, for example, I do not play, just ditch the strings that my game is disgusting that I should require subscription to I did not dare to take up the guitar - and many other such pleasantries. discourages me even utter indifference encountered by me in most of the music lovers, with whom I had to deal with. Reached sometimes to the point that I wanted to burn and guitar, and all my writings and notes, and forever renounce the music".
Overcoming doubt Makarov continued to improve in playing the guitar. Wanting to know the opinion of foreign guitarists of his game and become familiar with the state of affairs in Europe guitar, he decided to go abroad. June 6, 1852, he went with a sick wife and two year old daughter in Germany. They stopped in a small German resort Shvaldbahe where his wife had to undergo treatment. Leaving his family at the resort, Makarov went on a musical journey, and to include the trip to the World Exhibition in London.
"I started with Mainz - writes Makarov - where he lived Kamberger, who was a great guitar player on the banks of the Rhine... I recommend it as a passionate lover of guitar, but no more, and added that I would like to take a few lessons on this instrument that I studied so far without any teacher. Kamberger picked up his guitar with six strings, very mediocre, which was not half the strength of tone and melodious as my vosmistrunnaya. played it to me a few plays and their Giuliani. Played he very fluently, with animation, but for entirely German guitarists method, ie, in the game it was not tenderness, strict clarity, roundness, and beyond that was often heard bad bounce, ie growling bass. short - in the game it had no taste, the style of the game is nothing to think.
     Thanking Kambergera for fun, I delivered the play of his, I asked him to come, for he listened to my game and decided whether I should keep this difficult instrument. He gladly accepted my offer and an hour later came to me in the Hotel d'Angleterre. I gave him his "symphonic fantasy", saying:
     - From this you can judge and decide on the method and the strength of my game.
     Then, taking a guitar, I played from start to finish is a great essay, divided into three parts, and played very well, although I am not then freed from my timidity, which is so harmful for beginners, paralyzing their natural talents and acquired teaching tools. With notebook in hand score Kamberger intently watching a play of mine, crying at times: "Schon, sehr schon". When I graduated, it was some time in some stupefaction seemed destroyed and then said to me, with great animation, firmly grasping my arm - And you want to take lessons ! But who would dare to give them to you ? Not you, but you should take lessons in guitar playing.
Sure enough, it took me a lesson, asking questions about my trills, which I did on two strings and four fingers with unusual speed, smoothness and power, at the same time, accompanying them on bass; and then on the chromatic scale, for which I have not tried two or three fingers of his right hand, giving this range of speed and precision, unheard of before in any of the famous guitarists".
     On the road from Mainz to London, where Makarov went along with brother- they were able to call in Brussels. Here Makarov found the famous guitarist Tsani de Ferranti. Makarov wrote: "He was a man of about fifty, very intelligent, educated, secular, kind and elegant manners. He once, in the last years of the reign of Emperor Alexander I was in St. Petersburg and then dedicated one of his works for the Empress Elizabeth Guitars Alekseevne. nailyubezneyshim it took me way. Guitar he was also a six-string, Parisian and very simple operation. he told me that almost threw this tool is now more engaged in literature than music. Yet he played me any topic and then later "Rosa-Walzer" Strauss and played them perfectly. The game was his deep flavor, tenderness, and melodious expression, which I have so far met none of shestistrunnikov guitarists. But he belonged to the party of backward in the guitar world, decisively rejected because clear benefit to adding two guitar strings and guitar defended status quo, ie, to preserve the former six-string..".
Arriving in London, Makarov met guitarist Schultz. He played Makarov own Salon Pieces, Makarov him - Giuliani concert overture from the opera "William Tell" by Rossini arranged by Legnani, own mazurka, "Symphonic Fantasia" and several Russian songs. Mutual satisfaction with the meeting, they parted very friendly, and Makarov acquired Schultz published his plays and a few who were still in manuscript". As a performer, Schultz became a great virtuoso, but as a composer - void " - so Makarov summarizes his impression of the meeting with Shultz.
     In Paris Makarov met with two guitar celebrities: Carcassi, with the works which "gently and sparse" he had known in Russia, and the pupil F. Sora and publisher of his works - Napoleon Coste. With the latest Makarov converged very close". He was an intelligent and amiable Frenchman, modest, and most unselfish and passionate admirer of the guitar. He often visited me, and we played with him in two different guitar compositions Sora. Game it was a lot of clarity, purity, tenderness and taste, but she was cold and unable to inspire and stir you, as the game Schulz Zani de Ferranti or".
In Vienna, where Makarov went further, he was introduced to the best local guitarist Mertz. As a performer, Mertz has not made a favorable impression on Makarov. Rattling bass, grime in fast passages - these shortcomings Makarov was inclined to be regarded as inherent in all guitarists German school. Mertz game he considered qualitatively inferior to many game Schulz Tsani de Ferranti. Besides Mertz played guitar of ten, which was then not yet acknowledged Makarov. Mertz Makarov not liked his playing, and performing his own compositions. Them Makarov was delighted. He wrote that he found " the greatest composer of modern guitar music". Mertz plays were not published, but Makarov has acquired a number of his manuscripts.
     Being in Vienna, Makarov ordered Guitar best Austrian masters. He was recommended by the Vienna Conservatory gardirovschik Fisher, but made them to order Makarova devyatistrunnaya guitar was a bad sound quality. At the same time he decided to turn to the Viennese master Stauffer, who bought the guitar even from St. Petersburg. Stauffer in Vienna was not. Since 1848, he has ceased to making guitars, and shortly afterwards transferred his studio to another person and went to Prague. It turned out that two guitars, Makarov obtained from Stauffer in 1849, were not made by him, and his apprentice Scherzer. Since guitar Makarov liked, he decided to order a new devyatistrunnuyu Scherzer. Upon request Makarova, neck of the guitar should lengthen and bring to a full two octaves (with guitar neck commissioned Makarov 1840). Scherzer, sent to Berlin, where he arrived Makarov, new guitar was, according to the customer, excellent. Scherzer introduced additional enhancements: double lower deck, mechanical splitting and two iron rod inside and along accepting the force of a stretched string. Somewhat later, arrived in Russia, Makarov made another order Scherzer three guitars, but this time of ten.
    Makarov returned from a trip abroad enriched "impressions, which together may be defined as the art of the guitar in the West has fallen into disrepair. In the field of composition, including even the guitar creativity Mertz, Makarov states that" after the death of Giuliani does not add any talented composer for guitar" and in this he was largely right. as for guitar performance, then, according to Makarov, all he had heard about playing guitar celebrities as well as himself, if not worse. big role in conceit Makarova played, of course, he lavished praise and compliments, partly related to the fact that in Makarov saw wealthy traveler, a kind philanthropist guitar was buying manuscripts, etc. Makarov himself was convinced that his game is excellent. He wrote that at this time has finished his concert repertoire to the maximum and could play consecutive memory 25 large pieces. Performing Awareness own merits prompted him to public speaking. And it was held in St. Petersburg, in the auditorium of the University. At this concert Makarov high hopes. Alas ! They did not materialize. Speech it passed unnoticed, and that was the occasion for mourning Makarova on uncomprehending audience, and the general decline of interest in guitar art, etc.
By March 1856 at Makarova the idea of organizing an international competition of guitarists. By this time he was quite a wealthy man, the owner of the plant and the biggest names in the Kostroma province and could afford to spend some money on a musical charity. As he himself believed, apparently, the best guitarist, then decided to make a no contest performers, and competition for the best guitar and play the best tool. Competition venue he chose Brussels. Moscow and St. Petersburg seemed to him not quite suitable for this purpose, since here he had many detractors. Conceived competition would not have caused him to Russia proper public response, noise, in Europe could serve as an advertisement for the concerts, which he intended to give in Paris. Advertisements were placed in the contest Russian and foreign press in three languages - Russian, French and German.
In the autumn of 1856 Makarov went to Brussels, where he applied for assistance to the Director of the Conservatory, music critic and musicologist F.-ZH. Fetisov. Contrary to expectations, Makarov, Fetisov showed arrogant and dismissive attitude to himself and his intended guitar competitions.
Makarov met different attitude on the part of the professor of the Brussels Conservatory, music theorist B. Kings once lived in St. Petersburg. He became a close advisor and assistant Makarova for the contest. First of all, he recommended in Brussels to give Makarov own concert. Last held on October 12 in the hall of the Philharmonic Society. At a concert attended by 400 people, mostly artists and musicians invited Makarov. They performed their own compositions, of which custom had success Mazurka and guitar pieces by other authors, including Mertz Fantasy on themes from the opera "L'elisir d'amore" by Donizetti.
     In the Belgian newspaper "L'Echo de Bruxelles" ( 288) review appeared, in which he wrote: "The guitar before the abandoned and forgotten, that people talk about it no other way about some imaginary object, or how about childhood memories; our ears barely remember some of her sounds, due to even the most intrepid with some apprehension answered the courteous invitation of Makarova.
     If not visible instrument on which he plays, right, could be wrong. At the first sound of the instrument on the faces of all express surprise, but soon it had to give way to the pleasure of hearing those soft, velvety, clean sounds that Makarov extracts from his miraculous tool.
By this the main advantage of their game, Makarov attaches still many difficulties vanquished or even impossible, so at least they were called until now, and all these difficulties it takes quite easily, and, moreover, with the most conservative views. All this together proves to experienced amateurs presence wonderful musical talent, and a large supply of perseverance in the study.
     Mr. Makarov is not only beautiful, amazing performance, but his writings, the fruits of a great knowledge of the business. Mazurka for its charming melody and vivacity, and his Venetian Carnival can compete with the best in the originality of the works in this way..". This was followed by an organized competition Makarov.
In another Belgian newspaper "Le Guide musical de Bruxelles" ( 34) were published conditions of competition, has announced the appointment of two awards for the best composition for guitar and two - for the best tool, as well as announce the composition of the jury, where as chairman himself entered Makarov and members - prominent Belgian musicians: Bender, Blas, Kings, Kyufferat, Leonard and Servais.
     On the results of the competition will learn from a note placed in the St. Petersburg "Musical and Theatrical Journal" (1856, 52): "The final session of the contest, designated - known amateur artist, the Makarov was on November 28 (December 10).

Competitors was........... 37

Submitted to the contest works for guitar... 64

Instruments......... 7

First prize in the 800 francs crowned Concertino, Op. I.-K. Mertz, who died shortly before in Vienna.

Second prize of 500 francs - Grand Serenade, Op. Guitar professor in Paris H. Costa.

     Of the seven instruments submitted to the contest first prize of 800 francs crowned Viennese guitar wizard Scherzer, second prize of 500 francs - guitar wizard Arhuzena Petersburg.
One of the competitors crowned as said above, Mr. Costa, was personally present at the competition, played some of the works presented at the trial and, incidentally, his serenade, won the second prize. Mr. Makarov also performed several plays Mertz. This verification is justified immaculate jury verdict".
Need to do justice Makarov made great efforts to ensure that draw attention to the competition and own person. He mobilized the press, he played in the salons of the aristocracy, factory need acquaintances and connections, he took lessons in harmony Kings, arranged dinners for members of the jury, etc. Preparing your trip with concerts in Paris, he placed in the "Revue et Gazette musicale" articles Scherzer and memory of Mertz. All was in vain. A trip to Paris, could not take place because the material affairs Makarova shaken, and he had to urgently travel to St. Petersburg.
     Concerto Competition in Brussels and Makarov called his "swan song". At this time, the possession of the guitar tops. Arriving in St. Petersburg, Makarov played in charity concerts, yet not losing hope for his future guitar".Do not just happened to me - he wrote - for amateur guitar evenings, or at home, or in the late carrots, after the game is already over two seven-string guitar, to take over the mine, shertserovskuyu topped my first prize at the competition. I sometimes played 10-12 big plays, of which two or three repeated..".. However, the guitar work is not Makarov met little sympathy at home. In "Northern Bee " wrote:"... With regard to the fact that Makarov pleads first guitarist in the world, God bless him !... Let this thing disassemble guitarists, not us. Okolotke In our only neighbor plays Eremeyev guitar, but his Russian Vanya different song rolls.."
     If in 1856 Makarova befallen the half-ruined, then in 1860 was complete bankruptcy and collapse of all hope for the future. I had to think about a piece of bread. Makarov leaves from St. Petersburg to the village where betrayed woeful thinking about his failed career and financial. He has been compiling dictionaries edition which with the help of government subsidies becomes a means of livelihood. On his guitar career, he recalled with some bitterness, believing that the most helpful tool selection reason for his failures. Makarov wrote: " Here is the entire balance of my musical activities, ie, the complete failure of the music. And who and what I brought to sacrifice almost forty years of my life, of which twenty years of the most persistent, energetic study and work? Applause Noise my concert in Brussels, enthusiastic exclamations of praise and surrounded me after the concert a handful of amateurs; oblobyzaniya me Baron d'Annetan, Minister yard Leopold I, and other oblobyzaniya Adana, Deputy Minister of Finance, inveterate lover of guitar that the next day sent me to ministerial courier Rondos for Guitar his work dedicated to me. then appearance of several laudatory articles about my game in Brussels newspapers. Finally, two lunches, given to me by the barons d' Annetan, yes minister general tax collector. 's all: a small fireworks crackling and... smoke, immediately scattered trace. And what greeted me upon return ? mockery, mockery Petersburg scoff; Journal whistles my room a place of honor - Near Vanka.."Recalling his competition, Makarov wrote that the latter did not reach the goal. Besides the previously named " open " Mertz, the competition did not reveal any new guitarist - composer. only Makarova had consolation, as he wrote, is that "for the revival of the guitar, I did everything I was able to one person whom nobody endorse, promote.."
     Embittered by his guitar career setbacks, Makarov decided to publish them publicly executable pieces of his work. In 1874, Makarov were issued "Several rules supreme guitar playing", which, in his opinion, had to help guitarists to overcome technical difficulties encountered in these works. Small pamphlet, printed in Russian and, in parallel, French, contains a short "entry", which was followed by nine "rules", the first of which belonged to the ranks of ten propogated Makarov guitar, and the rest to private cases guitar technique.
"Introduction" was not associated with the content of a purely utilitarian purpose of the work. Makarov decided it once again emphasize its relationship to the state of the art of the guitar in the West and in Russia, while showing extreme intolerance of views on musical modernity. Stating the full decline in the West and guitar resenting its replacement zither, Makarov stated that Russia still remained "chivalrous" attitude to the guitar by individuals under which primarily implied Makarov himself. As usual, he attacked the "itch different language scoff", considering them culprits declining interest in the guitar, but the main reason that there was, in his opinion, "from the musical taste of blunting abuse of strong sensations, or rather from severe damage ears deafened noisiness, bombastic and tasteless music of some new music pachkunov... Is it possible to corrupt poporchennye and ears of music lovers the second half of the XIX century (fortunately not all) could be like the quiet, gentle, decorous and soulful guitar sounds? It's like that sot - drunkard, the average consumer a myriad of brandy, gin, whiskey, or even polynovki our own booze and Yerofeyich, regale Burgundy and Bordeaux wines".
     As you can see, Makarov minced no words, even resorting to comparisons of his former drinking - the farming practices. Demonstrating a complete misunderstanding of progress in the development of musical culture, Makarov unexpectedly goes to questions of a purely technical nature, to " the rules" necessary to enable the execution of works published by them.
With regard to building guitars Makarov was of the view that the greatest advantage of the tool is the possibility of using empty strings, especially in the bass. From this perspective, six-stringed guitar richer seven-string, as only the last three open strings (the rest - repeated octave sounds). Best, however, Makarov thought of ten guitar with the following systems and the location of additional bass:

     In further "rules" Makarov stayed on issues fingerings values of the right hand (use pinky fingers and various special cases), execution trilling guitar (four fingers on two strings), harmonics, chromatic scales, etc. Some points Makarov in terms of technique, could provide some interest for modern guitarists. Makarov published several guitar plays, including "The Carnival of Venice", which, according to him, he surprised Europe. This product (Prelude, Theme and Variations, Cantabile and Finale) differs conglomeration of technical difficulties, but extremely poor in thought. Very monotonous Adagio from his First Concerto for Guitar of ten (Gr. concerto!), Which bears the name of tendentious "Tear". Commonplace in music his mazurkas ("veselushku", "Milushka") with all kinds of technical tricks, and perhaps some attention should be paid only with variations Kamarinskaya wearing improvisational nature. Makarova composition hardly deserved publication; composer he was neither by talent nor by skill.
     N. Makarov died in 1890, 80 years of age. His guitar work is forgotten. Grandson Makarova N. Engelhardt, briefly recounting the vicissitudes of the life of his grandfather, recalled one romance, which he usually started his guitar playing. The text of this romance, penned Makarov A. Gurilev with music, and enjoys a wide popularity these days. He can be heard and at home, and on the concert stage:

Monotonously rings a bell,

And a little way up the hill,

And far from the dark field

Poured song driver.





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