Reconstruct 3 string on half-tone below (in F *) and play according
to section "How to read lute tabulatures?".
The oldest compositions were written
for the Renaissance lute, which had 6 strings. Only at the end of the
16-th century the 7-th string was added, later the string number was
increased once more. In different countries the lute had different tuning.
In Germany it was tuned A d g h e' a' and in Italy, France and Spain
it was G c f a d' g'. The intervals between strings are the same as
on the guitar with only difference that the third interval is between
from the 4-th to the 3-th string, it means if for the guitar with the
standard tuning to lower the third string for half a tone (F#).
As in the modern time there are more guitarists
than luteists, mostly the compositions are used which can be played
as at the lute as well at the guitar. The guitarist chooses if he'd
like to tune the 3-th string down (F#) or to leave as it is. Some things
are played easier due to this tuning, the others sound better in the
guitar tuning. If the usual tuning is left, the technical difficulties
are discovered in middle voices. In such cases some notes can disappear.
As a rule, these notes are in brackets. Very seldom guitarists lowered
the third string for half a tone, keeping the original pitch and in
some cases lightening the playing of original lute compositions. In
such cases, notes which can be lost are in brackets. But it is only
for those who uses the standard guitar pitch.
Many beautiful things, which require the 7-th string, can't be played
at the guitar. Some lovers of this music selected the seven-stringed
guitar. In this connection, 8 stands under the bass sound (mainly under
D); it means that in accordance with the original this sound should
be played an octave lower. The luteist plays here easily quivering bass.
At the guitar this note (8-th string) remains out of account.
Bat it doesn't matter, the lovers of lute
music find a way out tuning the 6-th string a tone lower regarding to
the existing pitch. As a rule in most cases this is the string 'd' which
is open what gives the opportunity to play most of lute compositions
at the guitar witch the string tuning. In other cases it should be ignored.
Leagues for the left hand appear in tabulations
only in the middle of the 17-th century. The performer has the possibility
to introduce the league because of technical and musical playing causes.
In Renaissance music the dynamical nuances (of the type f and p) were
still unknown, so the performer could decide independently now to play
in these or other cases. The tempos of the most those dances are unknown
To understand the character of different dances you can apply the next
Example of main themes:
Allemande - - - walking
Ballet - - - - - - walking briskly (a quick Allemande)
Basse danse - walking
Bergamasca - - a humorous dance-song
Bourree - - - - - - lively and accented
Branle (simple) - a lively folk-dance
Branle (gay) - - - a lively folk-dance
Canarie - - - - - - a dance-song
Chorea (choral dance) - lively
Galliard - - - - - - a jumping dance (a cheerful 'second' dance)
Passamezzo - - - walking (an accelerating pavane)
Pavane (Paduan dance) - walking slowly
Ronde - - - - - - a round-dance
Volta - - - - - - - a flowing Courante